Monday, November 23, 2015

Canadian Economics

Economics In Canada

Agriculture :

"The agriculture and agri-food industry contributes over $100 billion annually to Canada's gross domestic product (GDP). (That's more than the national GDP of 2/3 of the world's countries)." -
-5th largest agricultural exporter in the world
-industry employs 2.2 million Canadians
-Canda is world's third largest pork exporter
-AAFC helps farmers maximize profitability and competition
-food comes from sustainable farming practices
British Columbia: 
  • Horticulture
  • Dairy
  • Cattle
  • Grains and oilseeds
  • Grains and oilseeds
  • Cattle
  • Grains and oilseeds
  • Hogs
  • Grains and oilseeds
  • Dairy
  • Dairy
  • Hogs
Newfoundland and Labrador:
  • Dairy
  • Poultry
Prince Edward Island:
  • Horticulture
  • Dairy
New Brunswick:
  • Horticulture
  • Dairy
Nova Scotia:
  • Horticulture
  • Dairy
  • Forage
  • Greenhouse crops
Northwest Territories:
  • Eggs
  • Horticulture
  • Caribou, musk ox


Manufacturing and Service Industries 

-manufacturing employees 1.7 million of Canada's population

-leading industries are: food, motor, coal, petroleum, and chemical production 

-aprox. 90,000 manufacturing facilities 


Service industries are a large part of the Canadian economy. The economy is made up of the goods producing sector and service sector. As the population increases the number of individuals employed by the service industry increases. Organizations in the service industry are regulated by the government. "The fastest-growing occupations since the advent of computers have been the secretarial, clerical, sales and other service industry occupations." source:


This graph shows that the largest industry is healthcare and social. Females dominate this field as well as retail, food service, and education. Manufacturing and agriculture are male dominated fields but still play a major part in the economy. Management and enterprise are the smallest fields in the Canadian workforce. Agricultural jobs are performed mostly by rural males, whereas services jobs are performed by rural females. Urban females are slightly more likely to be educators that rural females. 

Economic Challenges 

In the first half of 2015, a collapse in oil prices was detrimental to the Canadian economy. Mexico is a cheaper place to produce and it has the same capital and engineering skills. This is causing nations to rely less on Canda which is slowing their economy. 
"The Canadian dollar effective exchange rate index has declined 13 percent over the past year, punctuated by a 16 percent drop against the U.S. dollar."-


This graph shows that Canadian exports have decreased within this year. This is due to the cheaper availability in Mexico leading nations to rely more on them than Canada. From 2000 till 2008 exportation was flourishing in the nation. Once the recession hit exports dropped dramatically. In 2015, exports drop to approximately 28 billion. This is below the current 30 billion in Mexico. The drop in exports that previously stimulated the economy is becoming detrimental to the production and profitability of the nation. 

Tuesday, November 10, 2015

Ethnic, Religious , and Political information

Ethnic Make-up 

-80% of the population Canadian born
-Going westward the population born outside of Canada increases.
-People of French origin are concentrated in Quebec, where they make up 80% of the population.
-French make up 23% of the total population.
-British make-up 28% of the total population.
-6% Arab, African, and Asian origin
-The main ethnicities are Canadian and English.

Ethnic Conflict 

Immigration, prejudice, and multiculturalism pose issues with ethnic equality in Canada. Currently natives and non-natives contrast and creating public issues. The conflict between English and French speaking communities persists due to their dominance as official languages. The balance of power between ethnic groups corresponds with the status of the groups former nation. The major ethnic groups have established their power and gained resources, but tend to deny access to minorities. Unequal access to educational and job opportunities for immigrants is a current issue as more culturally diverse groups emerge.The attempt to restructure multicultural policies to suit the diverse population of Canada still has not been approached.


Religious Landscape

Candian cities are religiously diverse, but the countryside is predominantly Christian. Canada has religious harmony and respect for all beliefs. 72% is Roman Catholic or Protestant (National Census). 
Those with no specific religion account for 16% of the total population. Non- Christian religions are concentrated in metropolitan areas. 2% of the population was calculated as Muslim by the national Census. Canada also has small Christian groups like Orthodox. Roman Catholic, Anglican, and United count for more than half the Canadian population. 




Canada is a parliamentary democracy, meaning that law is the supreme authority. Parties are held together by a common ideology, that seek political power to implement policies. Canada's system of government derives from the British. It is a representative form of government where citizens elect officials. The Senate is made up of members chosen by the Governor General to represent different territories. Members of parliament usually support a specific political party. Canda also has a constitutional monarchy, meaning that the Queen has executive authority through the constitution. The Prime minister is the head of the government and the Queen is the head of state. The current Prime Minister is Justin Trudeau appointed by David Johnston. 
Currently, the political issues at hand involve health care, immigration, and domestic policy. In health care, the conflict of whether it should be a provincial or federal responsibility is dividing political forces. With a growing diverse population and an unequal divide of resources. Canada faces issues of whether or not to enact stricter foreign policies. In domestic policy, the decisions on gun control, whether or not to give Candian aboriginals more funding, and drug policies are creating political conflicts.



Justin Trudeau

Wednesday, October 21, 2015

Population Statistics and Health Information

The last census in 2013 calculated that the population of Canada is 35.16 million. 

(Source: World BankUnited States Census Bureau)

Population Growth rate: 1.2% annual change in 2013 

Birth rate:10.9 per 1,000 people

Death rate: 7.2 per 1,000 people

Total fertility rate: 1.61 births per woman in 2012

life expectancy at birth: 81 years
 Source: (2013) World BankUnited States Census Bureau

This graph shows the population of urban areas based on age and gender. Males and females ages 45-50 highly populate urban areas. Females in general populate urban areas more than men. The population of children ages 0-14 and senior citizens ages 75-100+ is lower than the young adult populationThe urban population in 2014 was 29,018,752 people.

Toronto is the Canadian city along Lake Ontario's shore.

The number of reported HIV cases from 1996-2013 varied greatly.Their was a moderate increase between 2002-2008. Approximately 71,300 were living with HIV in 2011. The prevalence increased in the 1980s then decreased in the 1990s, but in the late 1990s increased slightly again. Ten people per 10,000 were newly infected with HIV in 2011. The infection rates vary from region to region. New HIV infections tend to occur with homosexual male couples in British Columbia. These men had either had sex with another man of were injected with an infected needle. In 2013 after an increase measures were taken to slow the progression of HIV. "One quarter of the people living with HIV in Canada are unaware that they have HIV." (Public Health Agency of Canada)  

Canada has one of the highest rates of Multiple Sclerosis in the world. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease that attacks the central nervous system. It is the most common neurological disease affecting adults in Canada."The exact cause of MS is unknown." (Canadian Network of MS Clinics)

Friday, October 9, 2015

Thematic Maps of Canada

What are Thematic Maps? 

Thematic maps used to connect a theme or concept to a geographical location. These themes can be related to economic, cultural, or political activities in an area. Thematic maps focus on a small geographical distribution. Distributions that are generally displayed on thematic maps are human interactions that affect population density. They can be used to understand the interactions within a specific area, to understand spatial relations, or to compare data between maps. Cartographers may use  (GIS) geographic information systems to layer data of several thematic maps. thematic maps are created to display a specific scenario in relation to an area. 

Median Earnings in 2005:

This thematic map of Canada displays the average income in 2005, by the census division. By observing this map, you can see that most of the population resides in southern Canada. Residents near central Canada in Saskatchewan and Manitoba have earnings of $18,000. Some low-income areas are also located in Atlantic coastal regions near Nova Scotia. Higher income populations are located in Quebec, British Columbia, and Alberta. A cluster of high income within the $26,847 and $32,000+ range is located near Lake Ontario. Housing in coastal areas is more expensive meaning residents have to have higher incomes. These areas may also be tourist attraction causing the cost of living to increase.

Population Distribution:

This map of Canda displays the population growth rate by percentage. The highest population growth occurred in Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan. These areas tended to have lower incomes which could correlate with rapid population growth or over population. Some of the areas that had higher incomes in Quebec had population growth. This could be related to the fact that it is a tourist area of Canada and borders with the US. The central areas of southern Saskatchewan and Manitoba have low population growth. These areas seem to have less activity in terms of population and economy. 

Mean Age:

This thematic map displays the median age within areas of Canada. Residents of Quebec, Ontario, and Nova Scotia have the average age of around forty-four. These areas also tend to have higher incomes correlating with the fact that older people tend to have a greater economic standing than younger people. The younger population in their early and mid-thirties are located generally in lower income areas with low population growth. A cluster of younger populations is located in northern Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Low median earnings and high population growth shows that these areas are in the process of economic development.